Tuesday, 22 April 2014

Hwy 7 from Kaladar to Carleton Place

On Easter weekend I drove east from the farmhouse to Ottawa along Hwy 7. The road runs along the edge of the PreCambrian shield. While the boundary is not a clear edge, generally speaking south of the highway is rich fertile farmland and north an unforgiving topography of solid granite, valleys of swamp and muskeg and bush.

Solid granite along the north side of Hwy 7

Low lying valleys of muskeg and swamp 

There had been an incredibly successful effort to populate southwestern Ontario in the 1830's and 40's. A key to that success had been the building of colonization roads. The other ingredient was the rich and fertile glacial till. Hoping to to expand that colonization effort to the Ottawa valley and over to Georgian Bay, the Public Lands Act was passed in 1853. Pioneers were encouraged to move north to settle this area. There were conditions to receiving title; at least 12 acres had to be cleared within four years, within a year a house had to be built and settlers needed to live on the land for at least five years. For many it was a heart and back breaking effort. Unlike southwestern Ontario this area had little arable land and often it was just a thin layer over solid rock. By the turn of the century 60% of the settlers had abandoned their land.
A settler's log building still stands
A stone fence, the result of the back breaking work of clearing the land
One of the colonization roads built to facilitate settlement was the Frontenac Road.  Frontenac County was one of the original nineteen counties of Upper Canada. While some of the original colonization roads became the skeleton of our modern highway syste Frontenac Road is not one of these. Today it is a winding gravel road running through bush dotted with farms.
Frontenac Road Historical Plaque
A settler who devoted his life to building the Frontenac Road
A pioneers' cemetery on the Frontenac Road
A simple but effective way of indicating a pothole on the Frontenac Road
South of Hwy 7 a tract of fertile farmland on the Frontenac Road
The highway is crossed by the Salmon and Mississippi Rivers and bordered by Silver and Sharbot Lake. There are provincial parks on both these lakes and a few cottages but no Hollywood movie stars will be buying property here.
Flooding of a rest stop on the Salmon River
Ya think?!
Silver Lake with its dotting of cottages along the shore
To this day the area remains sparsely populated. And for those who choose to live here life seems like a hard scrabble affair. In the summer the highway sports clusters of wooden sheds selling passersby wild blueberries. And in the winter heating with wood is common.
Blueberry shack

A beautifully stacked wood pile
While the area he describes is a little farther west the feeling of this area is captured beautifully and so poignantly by Al Purdy in his poem, The Country North of Belleville.

Tuesday, 15 April 2014

Spring at the farmhouse

Spring is lagging behind here at the farmhouse. There is still probably about 40% snow cover and between snow melt and the rain we're receiving there is flooding of the Moira River further south. Railway Creek, which runs along the southern boundary of our land, is one of the tributaries that is part of the Moira River watershed.
Railway Creek spreading into its flood plain below the house
Railway Creek further south creates a temporary waterfall
Wildlife is more varied here than in the city but, because of lower densities, much harder to spot. On my walk through the woods yesterday I startled a Ruffed Grouse, recognizable by the characteristic loud whirring of its wings as it springs into the air. Above there was a Cooper's Hawk making its surveillance rounds just above the tree canopy.

And so a photo essay of spring here in the country

The snow in retreat but not yet all gone
One of the moss gardens looking healthy after its winter on the deck
Species crocuses under the mulberry tree
Complete devastation and decimation by moles
A mole tunnel originally buried under the snow and now exposed
The garlic beds under their mulch of straw
Black currants budding out
Two kinds of visitors drop their calling card; deer on left, rabbit on the right. Interesting how two animals so different in stature would have scat virtually identical in size
Deer scat is pill shaped
Rabbit scat more circular
Last year's mustard, kale and beet bed with plant residue left on the bed for organic enrichment and soil cover
Sunflower husks left by the birds feasting on the seeds. In a few weeks there should be a number of self seeded plants
Not a single seed left on the flower by the birds, primarily chickadees and gold finches
After a hard winter rodent damage on the raspberry cane; the lower area early in the winter, the upper later when the snow cover had reached that high
Baby self seeded heirloom lettuces emerge after a winter protection of snow
Self seeded spinach from the fall

Saturday, 12 April 2014

An Argument Against Raking

Every spring one of the rituals we all feel good about, and many enjoy, is the raking of garden beds. Removing all that tired-looking debris from the autumn, ground down by the ravages of freeze and thaw and snow cover, is a horticultural form of spring cleaning. And like all de-cluttering it feels like an accomplishment. You can see where you've been and feel virtuous and proactive. Right?

Well, maybe not. It is true garden beds look tired when they're untouched and they look organized and tidy when they've been raked. But when we clean them up what are we actually doing to those beloved beds?
My unraked garden bed looking admittedly a little bleak
But early species crocuses brighten it up a little 
When we rake the beds are being stripped of nature's way of returning fertility to the soil. Fallen leaves,  dead annuals and the die-off of perennials are all sources of organic material. Many resources have been taken from the soil by the plants in order to produce leaves, flowers and perhaps even fruit or nuts. The residue from the previous season is nature's way of sustainably replenishing that fertility. That garden trash is food for the microbial and worm life in the soil and they, in turn, given food and opportunity, will turn those raw materials into a vast array of nutrients. Without this ongoing feeding of the soil we are starving it. No wonder we love Miracle Gro and petroleum based artificial fertilizers. When we aren't nourishing our dirt it responds to any sustenance, even something totally artificial and nutritionally deficient. This is sounding so familiar; it's funny how the analogy of soil to people and the food for both is so completely parallel.

It is interesting to note that when we take a walk in the woods we don't look at the humusy forest floor and think, "Yuck, I need to organize some volunteers to properly rake this woods". A helpful reminder that so many of our prejudices and aesthetic biases are all about context.
Second growth woods with its carpet of fallen leaves
In fact, healthy woods are an example of a sustainable ecosystem in action. Death and regeneration follow each other as amounts of sunlight change. Fallen trees rot into the ground providing fertility and increased microbial and fungal life. There is a storied profile to any mature balanced forest. The top layer here in Ontario is hardwood trees, below are understory trees and then further down shrubs and perhaps rambles. And then there is the forest floor. Depending on availability of sunlight and soil profile there could be ferns, mosses, perennial 'weeds', ground covers and in the spring the lovely "ephemerals", ramps and at different times of the year, mushrooms.

This fallen tree will eventually return entirely to the earth
Here the stump of a felled tree - almost unrecognizable as anything but rich humus earth
There is enough soil on this exposed rock to sustain clumping grasses which will prevent water and wind erosion
A smattering of beech saplings taking advantage of the extra sunlight provided by the opening up of the trail
A bramble growing in a sunnier spot at the edge of the woods
A self seeded conifer
Even this old split cedar fence will add to organic richness as it breaks down
If gardens aren't raked, as the season progresses the embedded plants will grow and hide some of the offending mess. The organic cover will act as a thin layer of mulch conserving moisture, suppressing weeds and maintaining a much more even temperature. And the microbial life in the soil will slowly transform the raw organic material into a richer, crumbly dark chocolate cake - looking soil. Real alchemy.

Some leaves have pulled away at the base of this sugar maple revealing a beautiful dark soil

Change is possible. It is not that long ago that virtually every front yard was planted in that monoculture we call a lawn. Now it is an exception to see a front yard given over to nothing but grass. The next transition is to seeing garden 'waste' as garden 'gold'  - a resource to be treasured and revered.

It is worth remembering that the Great Dust Bowl of the 1930's happened in an organic, that is a pre-petroleum-based pesticide, herbicide and fertilizer era. But it certainly wasn't a time of sustainable agriculture. And the biggest genocide perpetrated on the soil was stripping it of its cover. Denuded of perennial grasses there was nothing to hold the topsoil in place. Grasslands, like forests, are an example of a balanced and sustainable ecosystem. And what grasslands and forests have in common is there is never a single square inch of exposed soil.

One year I had a neighbour who I didn't know very well volunteer to visit me at the farmhouse and do some work in the garden. I was thrilled because there is always much more to do than I can handle. I was aghast when she proudly pointed out to me that she had taken the initiative to carefully remove every bit of debris from under the rhubarb plant. Little did she know that I deliberately tuck all the leaves I cut off the harvested stalks around the base of the plant. Rhubarb is a perennial and a heavy feeder. Because of both characteristics it needs lost of organic material to keep it strong and long-lived. It is also very sensitive to drought and will send up flower shoots and stop producing new stalks very quickly if, without a protective mulch, it is allowed to dry out. I'll never know if my volunteer interpreted the expression on my face as shock or awe.

So let's raise a glass to indigence - at least in regards to raking our gardens. Like people, they really look much more attractive fully-clothed than naked.

Wednesday, 9 April 2014

Spring in the Don Valley

The farmhouse is still buried under snow and ice while spring has sprung here in Toronto, farther south and closer to the lake. And so a photo essay on the signs of spring - human, flora and feathered fauna in the Don River Valley.

The metal "detecters" are out
Buried treasure?
A fence festooned with DSV, the invasive Dog Strangling Vine
Each DSV seed head has burst open laying the ground for this season's infestation 
Scylla hasn't seen the light. The ice in the tunnel under the railway track looks like primordial concrete!
Dealing with fallout from the Dec. 22 ice storm
Moving the debris for chipping 
The arborists, back on the road again, after rowing across the river to reach the west bank
Scum caught in the relatively stagnant "ditch" between the DVP and the bike path
Ducks gathering on a sandbar in the sun beside the fast-moving swollen Don River

A Red winged Blackbird, the first harbinger of spring
The valley is filled with the distinctive call of Red winged Blackbirds
Spring is really underway when the Robins arrive
Trees stripped of their foliage reveal bird nests

A home of another sort on the bank of the river
Another invasive, Japanese Knotweed, which won't stay downtrodden long
Garlic Mustard, yet another invasive species to our woods and forests
Stinging Nettle, a biennial native to many parts of the world, including North America
Some welcome colour in the monochromatic landscape, a Highbush Cranberry with its red berries
And a stunning stand of Red Osier Dogwood
Back in Riverdale Park East squirrel nests are visible in many of the big hardwoods